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Python interview questions. Part III. Senior Level



Q: Python is always called an easy language. Will you agree with it?

Q: What are the pitfalls and problems of Python language?

Q: How does a framework differ from a library?

Q: Is it possible to use the construction True = False?

Q: When will the else part of try...except...else be executed?

Q: What is monkey patching? How to use it in Python? Example? Is it ever a good idea?

Q: How are dict and set implemented internally? What is the complexity of retrieving an item? How much memory do these structures consume?

Q: Does Python support multiple inheritance? How does it solve the diamond problem?

Q: What is MRO in Python? How does it work?

Q: Does Python have an assignment operator? How is the assignment process in Python different from C/C++?

Q: What are descriptors? Is there a difference between a descriptor and a decorator?

Q: How are arguments passed to a function in Python — by value or by reference?

Q: What tools help you find code smells in code or perform static Code analysis? What else do you know/use to make your code maintainable and readable?

Q: Whenever Python exits, why isn't all the memory de-allocated?

Q: Is it possible to have a producer thread reading from the network and a consumer thread writing to a file, really work in parallel? What about GIL?

Q: What is GIL? Why GIL still exists?

Q: What is string interning? Why it Python have it?

Q: Why Python doesn't have a tail recursion optimization? How to implement it?

Q: What is the process of compilation and linking in Python?

Q: How to distribute Python code?

Q: How to package code in Python?

Q: What is a package manager? What package managers do you know, and which one do you recommend?

Q: How to work with Python transitive dependencies?

Q: What are the wheels and eggs? What is the difference?

Q: How to package binary dependencies in Python?

Q: What is Cython? What is IronPython? What is PyPy? Why do they still exist?

Q: Explain how can you access a module written in Python from C? Vise versa?

Q: What is __pycache__? What are .pyc files?

Q: How to speed up existing Python code? How would you speed up your, say, web app?

Q: How to isolate Python code? What are virtualenvs?

Q: Is Python a functional language? Specify the requirements for code written in a functional paradigm.

Q: Identify the pitfalls/limitations of the functional code.

Q: What are .pth files?

Q: What advantages do NumPy arrays offer over (nested) Python lists?

Q: What does the PYTHONOPTIMIZE flag do?

Q: You have a memory leak in the working production application on one of your company servers. How would you start debugging it?

Code involving questions

Q: Give an example of a filter and reduce over an iterable object.

Q: Write a function that reverses the generator?

Q: You need to implement a function that should use a static variable (for example, a call counter). You cannot write any code outside the function and you do not have information about external variables (outside your function). How to do it?

Q: What methods and in what order are called when print (A() + B()) is executed?

Q: How to implement a dictionary from scratch using core Python?

Q: What's the output?

def Foo(): 
    yield 42;
    return 666

Q: What will be the output of the following code?

>>> a = [[]] * 3
>>> a[1].append(1)
>>> print(a)  # [[1], [1], [1]

Q: Place the following functions below in order of their efficiency. How would you test your answer?

def f1(arr):
    l1 = sorted(arr)
    l2 = [i for i in l1 if i < 0.5]
    return [i * i for i in l2]
def f2(arr):
    l1 = [i for i in arr if i<0.5]
    l2 = sorted(l1)
    return [i * i for i in l2]
def f3(arr):
    l1 = [i * i for i in arr]
    l2 = sorted(l1)
    return [i for i in l1 if i < (0.5*0.5)]

Q: Write a one-liner that will count the number of capital letters in a file. Your code should work even if the file is too big to fit in memory.

Q: What will be the output of the following code? Why? Is this inheritance?

class C:

type (C())
type (C)

Q: What will be the output of the following code?

big_num_1   = 1000
big_num_2   = 1000
small_num_1 = 1
small_num_2 = 1
big_num_1 is big_num_2
small_num_1 is small_num_2

Q: How is this possible?

_MangledGlobal__mangled = 23

class MangledGlobal:
     def test(self):
         return __mangled

>>> MangledGlobal().test()

Q: What will be the output of the following code?

>>> print(_)

Q: You saw the following piece of code. What is wrong with this code? Why is it needed?

if __debug__:
    assert False, ("error")


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